Shandong Province is abbreviated as “Lu”, and its name refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. The province is located on the eastern coastal areas of China and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and borders the Yellow Sea to the east, and the Bohai Sea to the north. The whole province consists of Shandong Peninsula and the inland. Shandong has a population of over 94 million and spans an area of 157,000 km2. As the main origin of Eastern Yi culture (the culture created by Eastern Yi people in pre-Qin period), Shandong is also the birthplace of Qi & Lu culture. Its time-honored history and culture as well as the abundant and magnificent mountains, rivers and lakes have cultivated generations of saints and numerous prominent personages. The history of Shandong can be traced back to 400,000 or 500,000 years ago when the earliest Shandong people - “Yiyuan People” lived. The Beixin culture (5300-4100 B.C.) developed 7000 years ago was earlier than the Neolithic Age (4500 and 2000 B.C.) in Tengxian. And the world famous Dawenkou culture and Longshan culture in the end of the primitive society were also first discovered in Shandong, so were the earliest Chinese character “inscription on pottery of Dawenkou” and “terracotta characters of Longshan”, as well as the earliest city-state “Chengziya Ruins in Longshan Ancient City” , the earliest Chinese military defense project “Great Wall of Qi (1046 -221 B.C.)” and Luozhuang Han Dynasty Tombs” (206 B.C.-220 A.D.) listed as “10 Most Important Archaeological Discoveries” of China in 2000, etc. Shandong is also one of the origins of Chinese ceramics and silk. There appear a great number of prominent persons influential to the Chinese culture in the history of Shandong. Confucianism by the great ideologist, educationist and politician Confucius (551-479 B.C.) is the backbone of Chinese culture. The Master Sun's Art of War written by famous militarist Sun Wu (551-479 B.C.) in ancient China is now a classic appreciated by military and business circles at home and abroad. These extraordinary persons also include Mencius, Mo-tse, Xuncius, Zhuang Zhou, Guan Zhong, Wang Hsi-Chih, Lu Ban, Jia Sixie, Bian Que, Sun Bin, Zhuge Liang, Dongfang Shuo, Kong Rong, Liu Xie, Li Qingzhao, Xin Qiji, Pu Songling, Kong Shangren and so on. Their thinking, theories, wisdom and academic achievements constitute major parts of traditional Chinese culture and have imposed a profound and intensive influence on the development of Chinese culture.
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