Zhongshan Mountain Scenic Spot - Scenic Area of Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s Mausoleum in Nanjing City
Zhongshan Mountain, also named Purple-Golden Mountain, is located in the northeast suburbs of Nanjing. With Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s Mausoleum as the center, it includes two major regions, namely, Purple-Golden Mountain and Xuanwu Lake, covering a total area of 45 km2 and listed in the first batch of national scenic spots in China. With beautiful landscapes, abundant historical sites and cultural relics, it enjoyed the reputation as “Jinling is a place that brings up numerous talents”. Zhongshan Mountain is the west end of Ningzhen Mountain Ridge, spanning out of the Zhongshan Gate of Nanjing, which was named Jinling Mountain, Shengyou Mountain before and named Jiangshan Mountain by the Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. Stretching 7.4 km from east to west and 3 km from south to north, Zhongshan Mountain Scenic Spot has a perimeter of over 20 km. Winding ups and downs like a swimming dragon, Zhongshan Mountain was described as “Zhongshan Mountain shapes like a curled-up dragon”. The nature-bestowed Zhongshan Mountain is among the first batch of national scenic spots of China. With purple shale, it looked shining like purple gold under the sunshine, thus getting the name Purple-Golden Mountain. There are 3 peaks in the mountain: the major peak North High Peak with the height of 468 m is the highest peak in Jinling; the second peak is located in the southeast side, called Xiaomao Hill with the height of 360 m, and Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s Mausoleum is at the south foot of it. The third peak with the height of 250 m is in the southwest side and named Tianbao Hill because the Tianbao City was built on the top of it by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. The well-known Purple-Golden Mountain Observatory was built on top of it. The Xuanwu Lake was situated west of Zhongshan Mountain and north of Nanjing City, with the former name Sangbo and Back Lake. With the landscape of lakes and mountains, its scenery is quite pleasant. Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s Mausoleum, which is located in the downtown of Nanjing in Jiangsu, is the mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the great revolutionary forerunner, whose coffin was buried here on June 1, 1929. Facing south, Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s Mausoleum covers a total area of over 80,000 m2 and the major architectures of it include the Memorial Archway, Path Leading to the Tomb, Gate to the Mausoleum, Stone Stairways, Tablet Pavilion, Sacrificial Hall, Coffin Chamber and so on, all of which are lined up along the central axis, reflecting the style of traditional Chinese architectures. The overall layout of the Mausoleum shapes like the pattern of “alarm bell”. Among these architectures, the Sacrificial Hall is a palace building with 3 archways, on the lintels of which engraved with “nationalism, democracy and livelihood”. The marble statue of Dr. Sun Yat-sen is placed in the Sacrificial Hall, the wall of which is engraved with the full article of Fundamentals of Constitution written by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
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